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Sequioia sempervirens is the solve living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treatd in Taxodiaceae). Common names inlcude coast redwod, California redwood, and giant redwood. It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1200-1800 years or
more.[2] This species includes the tallest trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet(115.5m) in height (without the roots) and up to 26 feet (7.9 m) in diameter at breast height. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree ouccured naturally in an estimated2,100,000 acres (8,500 km2) along much of coastal California (excluding southern California where rainfall is not sufficient) and the southwestern corner of coastl Oregon within the United States. An estimate 95% or more of the original old-growth redwood forest has been cut down, [3] due to its excellent properties for use as lumber in construction.

The name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoiodeae, which includes S.sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron (giant sequoia) and Metaseqoia(dawn redwood). On its own, the term redwood usually refers to the coast redwood, which is covered in this article, and not to the other species.

The coast redwood has conical crown, with horizontal to slightly drooping branches. The bark is very thick, up to 30 cm (12 in), and quite soft and fibrous, with a bright red-brown color when freshly exposed (hence the name redwood), weathering darker. The root system is composed of shallow, wide-spreading lateral roots.

The leaves are variable , being 15-25 mm (0.59 - 0.98 in) long and flat and flate young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees, and scale-like, 5-10 mm (0.20 - 0.39 in) long on shoots in full sun in the uppper crown of old trees, with a full range of trasition between the two extremes. They are dark green above, and with two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in flat plane for maximum light capture.

The species in monoecious with pollen and seed cones on the same point. The seed cones are ovoid, 15 - 32 millmeters (0.59 - 1.3 in) long , with 15 - 25 spirally arranged scales; pollination is in late winter with matuaration about 8 - 9 months after. Each cone scale bears three to seven seeds, each seed 3 - 4 millimeters(0.12 - 0.16 in ) broad, with two things 1 millimeters(0.0039 in) wide. The seeds are realeased when the cone scales dry out and open at maturity. The pollen cones are oval, 4-6 millimeters(0.16 - 0.24 in ) long.

Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid(6n) and possibly allopoloid (AAAABB). the mitochondrial ge-name of the redwood is paternally inherited (unlike that of other conifers)